Steel knowledge

Steel basic concepts and production methods

Steel basic concepts and production methods


Steel basic concepts and production methods

Steel basic concepts and production methods

1 、The concept of steel: Steel is an alloy of iron, carbon and small amounts of other elements. Steel is a steel ingot, billet or steel processing material of various shapes, sizes and performance we need through the pressure. Steel is the nation-building and the four modernizations indispensable material, widely used, variety, depending on the cross-sectional shape, generally divided into sections, sheet, pipe and metal products into four categories, in order to facilitate the organization of production of steel, ordering supply and improve the management of work, divided into heavy rail, light rail, heavy sections, medium steel, small steel, cold-formed steel, high-quality steel, wire, thick steel plate, sheet steel, electrical steel sheet, strip, no seam steel pipe, welded steel pipes, metal products and other varieties.

Steel is an alloy of iron, carbon and small amounts of other elements. Stainless steel, or 10.5% or more of chromium corrosion resistant alloy of gold content is a generic term such metals. This is not to say it should be remembered stainless steel does not rust or corrode, and it is more than just a chromium-free alloy corrosion resistance stronger. In addition to chromium metal, other metals such as nickel, molybdenum, vanadium and the like may be added to the alloy steel for a change in properties, thus producing different grades, different properties of stainless steel. Due to the different application purposes and places, careful selection of the most appropriate performance tool manufactured of stainless steel, to improve the work efficiency and specific probability of success is critical. Advantages of different metallic elements bring the tool. Simply put: Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. Other ingredients to make steel performance differ. The following are listed in alphabetical order important steel, they contain the following ingredients:

Carbon - Present in all steels, the hardening is the most important element. Helps to increase the strength of steel, we usually want the tool steel grade has more than 0.5% of carbon, has become a high-carbon steel.

Chromium - Increased wear resistance, hardness, corrosion resistance, most importantly, with more than 13% were considered stainless steel. Despite the so called, if maintained properly, all the steel will rust.

Manganese  - Important element to help generate texture, increasing robustness, and strength, and abrasion resistance. In the heat treatment process, to steel and rolled inside deoxygenation occurs in most cutlery steel except for A-2, L-6, and CPM 420V.

Molybdenum - Carbonation agents, to prevent the steel brittle, to maintain the strength of steel at elevated temperatures, present in many steels, air-hardened steel (e.g., A-2, ATS-34) always contains 1% or more of molybdenum, so that they can harden in air.

Nickle  - Maintaining the strength, corrosion resistance, and toughness. Appears in 8 AUS-in L-6 \ AUS-6 and.

Silicon  - Help enhance strength. Like manganese, silicon steel for maintaining the strength of the steel production process.

Tungsten  - Enhanced abrasion resistance. The appropriate proportion of tungsten and chromium or manganese mixed for the manufacture of high-speed steel. In the M-2 high speed steel to contain large amounts of tungsten.

Vanadium  - Enhanced wear resistance and ductility. A vanadium carbide used in the manufacture of steel stripes. In many types of steels contain vanadium, which M-2, Vascowear, CPM T440V and 420VA contain large amounts of vanadium. The BG-42 ATS-34 and the biggest difference is that the former contains vanadium.

2Types of steel

Refining the molten steel furnaces were cast billets, ingots or billets processed into steel by pressure (steel products). Many different types of steel, and can be divided into two types, plate, tube and wire four major categories.

1, steel category

Many varieties of steel, is a cross-sectional shape and size has a solid bar of steel. Divided by its cross-sectional shape of the different sections of two simple and complex. The former include round, square steel, flat steel, hexagonal and angles; the latter include rails, beams, channels, window frames and other steel and special steel. 6.5 -9.0mm diameter small bar called wire.

2, steel category

A generous surface area ratio and have a lot of flat steel. Different sub-sheet thickness (thickness <4mm), plate (thickness 4 -25mm) and slab (thickness> 25mm) three. Steel strip included in the class.

3, steel category

Class is a hollow steel section steel bar. Divided by its cross-sectional shape of the different tube, square tube, hexagonal tubes and a variety of profiled steel. And can be divided according to different processing of seamless and welded steel pipe into two categories.

4, wire type

Wire is wire again cold products. According to the shape of the different sub-round wire, flat wire and steel wire triangle. In addition to the direct use of steel, but also for the production of wire rope, steel wire and other grain products.


2 ,  Steel production methods  
Most steel processing through press working, to be processed steel (billet, ingot, etc.) is plastically deformed. Steel processing according to different temperatures to cold and heat processing two kinds of points. The main steel processing method has:

    Rolling: The metal blank by a gap (of various shapes) rotating rolls, rolls due to compression of the material cross section decreases, the length of the increased pressure processing method, which is the production of the most common mode of production of steel, mainly used to produce profiles, sheet, pipe. Min cold-rolled, hot-rolled.

    Forging:The use of a reciprocating hammer impact force or pressure presses the blank changed our desired shape and size a press molding method. Generally divided into free forging and forging, commonly used for the production of large sections, such as cross-sectional size larger billet material.

    Drawing:Is already rolled metal blanks (type, pipe, products, etc.) through the die hole pull aside to increase the length of the cross section reduction processing methods are mostly used as a cold.

    Extrusion: Is placed in a closed metal extrusion Jane, pressure end of the metal from the extrusion die orifice to obtain a predetermined shape and size have finished with the processing method used for the production of non-ferrous materials.

    Classification of steel

    Wire :P line High Line rebar

    Profiles :Square steel beam channel angle heavy rail Engineering steel H-beam bar unequal angle steel flat steel rail gear

    Steel Bars structural hexagonal round co-workers round the pipe carbon tool steel bearing steel carbon structural steel bar stainless steel bar bearing round spring steel rectangular tube

    Sheet :Plate container board plate carbon plate boiler plate low-alloy plate checkered cold Coil cold hot plate hot coil galvanized sheet galvanized sheet galvanized steel sheet coil color coated steel plate manganese plate color steel corrugated iron plating zinc hot strip coil

    Pipe :Welded stainless steel pipe galvanized pipe cold galvanized pipe seamless hot-rolled seamless spiral

    Metal material :Pig iron aluminum tin tin lead zinc brass

    Can be divided into sections according to shape steel, sheet, pipe, metal products four categories.

In order to facilitate the procurement, ordering and management, our current Congress will be divided into steel varieties:





Heavy Rail

Weighing more than 30 kilograms per meter rail (including crane rails)

Light Rail

Weight per meter is less than or equal to 30 kg rails

Large steel

Ordinary steel round bar, square steel, flat steel, hexagonal, beams, channels, equilateral
And unequal angle and rebar. By size into large, medium and small

Medium section

Small steel


5-10 mm diameter round bar and wire rod

Cold-formed steel

The steel roll forming steel or steel made

Quality profiles

Stainless steel round bar, square steel, flat steel, hexagonal, etc.

Other steel and other steel products

Including heavy rail accessories, billet axle, wheels, etc.


Sheet steel

Equal to and less than 4 mm thickness steel

Thick steel plate

A thickness greater than 4 mm plate.
Can be divided into the plate (thickness greater than 4mm smaller than 20mm), Plate (greater than 20mm thickness less than 60mm), special plate (thickness greater than 60mm)


Also known as the strip is actually a long, narrow and thin steel rolls supply

Electrical silicon steel sheet

Also known as silicon or silicon steel


Seamless steel pipe

Hot-rolled, hot - drawn or extrusion process for the production of seamless steel pipe wall

Welded steel pipe

The plate or strip shaped curl, and then formed into welded steel pipe



Including steel wire, wire rope, steel cable, etc.